El accidente cerebrovascular (ictus) es un trastorno brusco en la circulación sanguínea del cerebro que puede ser producido por obstrucción isquémica (85% de los casos) o por hemorragia (15%). La fecha instaurada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), busca centrar su atención en la concientización y en la prevención de este episodio.
Generalmente se da mayormente en personas mayores de 40 años y es una de las primeras causas de incapacidad en el mundo. Se estima que en Argentina ocurre 1 cada 4 minutos

Factores de riesgo
El 90% de los ACV pueden evitarse, es por ello que se hace mucho hincapié en los factores de riesgo. Es una enfermedad multifactorial en la que una combinación de factores de riesgo (no todos deben estar presentes) influyen, con el transcurso del tiempo, en la probabilidad de que el sujeto presente esta afección:
1. Modificables: hipertensión arterial, tabaquismo, sedentarismo, sobrepeso, régimen alimentario (escaso consumo de frutas y verduras).
2. Potencialmente modificables: diabetes mellitus.
3. No modificables: edad, sexo, factores hereditarios.

Los accidentes cerebrovasculares ocurren de manera rápida, y recibir ayuda de inmediato puede ayudarte a tener una recuperación completa. Los síntomas del accidente cerebrovascular aparecen repentinamente:
-Entumecimiento o debilidad en la cara, un brazo o una pierna, especialmente en un solo lado del cuerpo
-Confusión o problemas para hablar o comprender
-Problemas para ver con uno o ambos ojos
-Problemas para caminar, mareos o pérdida de equilibrio o coordinación
-Dolor de cabeza intenso sin causa conocida

El objetivo del tratamiento del ACV isquémico es la preservación de la penumbra isquémica, para esto se administra trombolisis endovenosa con activador del plasminógeno tisular recombinante (t-PA). Aunque aumenta el riesgo de transformación hemorrágica del infarto ha demostrado un disminuir el riesgo de muerte y dependencia si se administra hasta 4.5 horas tras el inicio de los síntomas; el beneficio es mayor cuanto más precozmente se administre

Los accidentes cerebrovasculares hemorrágicos tienen menos opciones de tratamiento. Por lo general consiste en controlar la hemorragia y reducir la presión con medicamentos o cirugía. El tipo de tratamiento depende de la causa de la hemorragia y de si la hemorragia tuvo lugar dentro o fuera del tejido cerebral.

El Accidentes cerebrovascular es un trastorno de importante prevalencia en la población argentina y es importante tanto para el personal de salud como para la población general conocer las características de su presentación para poder reconocerlo y actuar de forma inmediata.


Paho.org. [citado el 24 de octubre de 2021]. Disponible en: Clic Aquí      

Cerebrovascular A. Boletín No 12 Las [Internet]. Org.ar. [citado el 24 de octubre de 2021]. Disponible en: Clic Aquí 

UNDEC [citado el 24 de octubre de 2021]. Disponible en: Clic Aquí

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